Prominent examples are C. megalodon and L.  A ferocious walrus, Pelagiarctos may have preyed upon other species of pinnipeds including Allodesmus. In the past 20 years, new discoveries of fossil apes from the Miocene have transformed our ideas about the timing, geography, and causes of the evolution of the African apes and humans. The Miocene Epoch (23 million to 5.3 million years ago) is probably the most fruitful for paleoprimatology. Although a long-term cooling trend was well underway, there is evidence of a warm period during the Miocene when the global climate rivalled that of the Oligocene. The predominate hominoids of the Miocene epoch that will be examined in this paper are the hominoids Kenyapithecus, Sivapithecus, and Proconsul.  The expansion of grasslands and radiations among terrestrial herbivores correlates to fluctuations in CO2. In the quest for our human story, the challenge rises immediately in the last 14-10 Ka for a reliable scenario for the peopling of the Americas and gets increasingly complicated and more speculative as evidence of slow climatic and geophysical changes … Unequivocally recognizable dabbling ducks, plovers, typical owls, cockatoos and crows appear during the Miocene. Miocene Hominoids and Hominid Origins Miocene Hominoids and Hominid Origins Benefit, Brenda R.; McCrossin, Monte L. 1995-10-01 00:00:00 Recent discoveries have greatly clarified the family tree relationships of MioÂ cene apes to modern apes and humans. Over 30 genera of Miocene apes are currently recognized (Begun, 1995a); probably only a small percentage of those that existed. Marine birds reached their highest diversity ever in the course of this epoch. David R. Begun, Miocene Hominids and the Origins of the African Apes and Humans, Annual Review of Anthropology, 10.1146/annurev.anthro.012809.105047, 39, 1, (67-84), (2010). Well studied continental exposures occur in the North American Great Plains and in Argentina. India continued to collide with Asia, creating dramatic new mountain ranges. The Miocene is preceded by the Oligocene and is followed by the … Over 30 genera of Miocene apes are currently recognized (Begun, 1995a); probably only a small percentage of those that existed. The great apes from the Middle East, India, and China were confined to the same ecologic and climatic zonation during the terminal Miocene. and characteristic to those found in extant apes (Benefit et al., 1995). Both continental and marine Miocene deposits are common worldwide with marine outcrops common near modern shorelines. As, at the same time, traces of the earliest Old World monkeys are known, it appears that, while the Proconsulidae flourished with many genera and species, the hominoids (apes) and cercopithecoids (monkeys) were emerging and beginning to specialize. The Pliocene Epoch (5.3 million to 2.6 million years ago) was very similar to the present in terms of its geomorphology and climate. Out of this radiation arose the ancestor of modern apes and humans. Crossref Erin Rae Leslie, A comparative analysis of internal cranial anatomy in the hylobatidae, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 10.1002/ajpa.21310, 143 , 2, (250-265), (2010). The limb proportions are those of a brachiator. Long considered to be ancestral gibbons, the pliopithecids are now known to be far removed from gibbons, or indeed any other living primates. Regionally, other systems are used, based on characteristic land mammals; some of them overlap with the preceding Oligocene and following Pliocene epochs: Continents continued to drift toward their present positions. By the end of this epoch and the start of the following one, the ancestors of humans had split away from the ancestors of the chimpanzees to follow their own evolutionary path during the final Messinian stage (7.5–5.3 Ma) of the Miocene. Yet the majority of fossil great apes are from Europe and Asia. In 1997 the description of a new genus and species, Morotopithecus bishopi, was announced, and this 20-million-year-old fossil is claimed to show the earliest traces of modern hominoid skeletal features. Before discussing Miocene apes, a few terms must be defined. The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about 23.03 to 5.333 million years ago. Burdigalian (20.43–15.97 Ma) 6. Life during the Miocene Epoch was mostly supported by the two newly formed biomes, kelp forests and grasslands. All primates have the same types of teeth; however, the number of each type can vary. Crocodilians also showed signs of diversification during Miocene. The separation of the gibbons (Hylobatidae) from the great ape/human stock (Hominidae) is at present not documented by fossils; indeed, whether there are any fossil gibbons known at all before the Pleistocene is still disputed. Thus, early small-bodied apes may have contributed more to the evolution of the hominoid lineage than previously assumed. Tortonian (11.608–7.246 Ma) 3. Crossref Erin Rae Leslie, A comparative analysis of internal cranial anatomy in the hylobatidae, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 10.1002/ajpa.21310, 143 , 2, (250-265), (2010). Early Miocene taxa show loss of the tail (Ward et al. Jaw and tooth features that Miocene large-bodied apes share with great apes and humans can now be regarded as conservative retentions from the ancestral condition for living apes, including gibbons. These taxa, commonly called the Miocene apes, have been subject to innumerable studies, yet there is still no consensus on their diets, which is a major component in reconstructing their environmental niches. Renewed excavations at these sites, 17 million to 19 million years old, and exploration of new sites (one of them as much as 24 million years old) in northern Kenya have modified the older conclusions. By the epoch's end, all or almost all modern bird groups are believed to have been present; the few post-Miocene bird fossils which cannot be placed in the evolutionary tree with full confidence are simply too badly preserved, rather than too equivocal in character. 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Discounting the effects of recent human influence on the distribution of forest and savanna in the tropics, the face of the land cannot have differed much from today. Overall temperatures significantly increased compared to those in the Oligocene. 1991) and changes in ulno-carpal (Beard et al. Approximately 100 species of apes lived during this time, ranging throughout Africa, Asia and Europe and varying widely in size, diet, and anatomy. Miocene hominoids exhibit a level of taxic, morphological, and biogeographic diversity that far exceeded that of living apes. Most of the early-middle miocene "apes" from Africa are stem hominoids. ... Miocene apes possess a higher diversity of locomotor repertoires than modern ones and it appears reductionist to focus only on modern hominoids to understand how bipedalism emerged. All primate species possess adaptations for climbing trees, as they all descended from tree-dwellers. of the Miocene hominoids in an attempt to demonstrate the shared and derived characteristics between hominiods and hominids as well as a comparison to extant apes. By 8 million years ago, temperatures dropped sharply once again, and the Antarctic ice sheet was already approaching its present-day size and thickness. Apess went extinct in Southern Europe (including France, Spain, Italy, and Greece) during the late Miocene, probably as a result of: a Y-5 Molar pattern.  Another gigantic form was a false gharial Rhamphosuchus, which inhabited modern age India. Islands began to form between South and North America in the Late Miocene, allowing ground sloths like Thinobadistes to island-hop to North America. hylobatids = gibbons and siamangs) is virtually non-existent before the latest Miocene of East Asia. The apes first evolved, arose, and diversified during the early Miocene (Aquitanian and Burdigalian stages), becoming widespread in the Old World. Cetaceans attained their greatest diversity during the Miocene, with over 20 recognized genera of baleen whales in comparison to only six living genera. The Miocene is of particular interest to geologists and palaeoclimatologists as major phases of the geology of the Himalaya occurred during the Miocene, affecting monsoonal patterns in Asia, which were interlinked with glacial periods in the northern hemisphere. Alba et al. apes (Fig. Non-marsupial metatherians were also still around, such as the American and Eurasian herpetotheriids and peradectids such as Siamoperadectes, and the South American sparassodonts. An approximate timescale of key Neogene events. If the orangutan lineage was now separate, it would be expected that ancestors of the human/gorilla/chimpanzee line would be found at contemporary sites farther west, and this turns out probably to be the case with the discoveries of two additional genera: the poorly known eight-million-year-old Samburupithecus, from northern Kenya, and the increasingly complete craniodental discoveries of Graecopithecus, from several sites of about the same age in Greece. It is the first horse of the lineage of modern grass-eaters. The human line is not thought to have separated from that of the chimpanzee by this period, yet the Oreopithecus pelvis undeniably shows biomechanical stress patterns expected of a partial biped. Mountain building took place in western North America, Europe, and East Asia. New Zealand's Miocene fossil record is particularly rich. 203- Miocene apes are from Europe and Asia taxa as basal “ African ” apes in. 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